The algorithm for simulation of dichromatic vision and its application for detecting color vision deficiencies

© 2019 P. V. Maximov, E. M. Maximova, M. A. Gracheva, A. A. Kazakova, A. S. Kulagin

Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute), Russian Academy of Sciences, 127051 Moscow, B. Karetny per. 19, Build. 1, Russia
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 117997 Moscow, Ostrovitianov str. 1, Russia
Moscow State Budgetary Educational Institution “School № 1501”, 127055 Moscow, Tikhvinsky per., 3, Russia

Received 20 Feb 2019

A normal human color vision is based on three types of cones in the retina: with long-wave (L), middle-wave (M) and short-wave (S) photopigments. The main pathologies of color vision – dichromacy and anomalous trichromacy – are caused by the malfunction of one of the cone types. There are three types of dichromacy: protanopia – the absence of a long- wave photopigment, deuteranopia – the absence of a middle-wave photopigment, and very rare tritanopia – the absence of a short-wave photopigment, while anomalous trichromacy is caused by the shift of the spectral sensitivity curve of one of the cone types from its normal position along the axis of wavelengths. We developed a software simulator of dichromatic color vision allowing an observer with normal color perception to assess which colors are distinguishable in the image, and which colors are indistinguishable for protanopes and deuteranopes. The simulator performs direct and inverse transformations between monitor pixel values (R, G, B) and calculated relative cone excitations (L, M, S). To simulate protanopic perception, an output image is constructed so that each pixel would induce the same excitations of M and S cones as the same pixel of the original image does, and the excitation of L cone would be adjusted arbitrary. Simulation of deuteranopic perception is similar, but the values of L and S cone excitations are preserved, and the value of M cone excitation is adjusted arbitrarily. In other words, the simulator reduces the dimensionality of the LMS color space from 3 to 2 according to the simulated type of dichromacy. On the basis of this simulator we developed another software for human color vision testing. The subject is being sequentially presented with triples of images: a “trichromatic” one, and two images simulating color perception of protanopes and deuteranopes. The task for the subject is to select the image standing out color-wise. Normal trichromates select the “trichromatic” picture as the most different one, protanopes select “deuteranopic” image, and deuteranopes select “protanopic” image. The data of preliminary examining (83 subjects) demonstrated the usefulness of our color vision testing software.

Key words: human color vision, dichromacy, detection of color vision deficiencies, dichromacy modeling, color coordinates conversion

DOI: 10.1134/S0235009219030053

Cite: Maximov P. V., Maximova E. M., Gracheva M. A., Kazakova A. A., Kulagin A. S.. Algoritm imitatsii zreniya dikhromatov i ego primenenie dlya vyyavleniya anomalii tsvetovospriyatiya [The algorithm for simulation of dichromatic vision and its application for detecting color vision deficiencies]. Sensornye sistemy [Sensory systems]. 2019. V. 33(3). P. 181-196 (in Russian). doi: 10.1134/S0235009219030053

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