Characteristics of morphological development of the extreme retinal periphery near ora serrata

© 2018 I. G. Panova, R. A. Poltavtseva, G. I. Rozhkova

N.K. Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, ul. Vavilova 26, Russia
V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Public Health of Russia, 117997 Moscow, ul. Akademika Oparina 4, Russia
Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute), Russian Academy of Sciences, 127051 Moscow, Bolshoi Karetny lane, 19, Russia

Received 09 Apr 2018

The histological data presented in this paper characterize the early stages of development (5.5–20 weeks) of the extreme visual retinal periphery in human (pars optica retinae) near ora serrata where retina undergoes transformsation into blind tunic under ciliar body (pars caeca retinae) lacking photosensitivity. This area attracted attention of investigators due to a cone-enriched rim (CER) whose origin and functions had been most often discussed in psychophysical but not morphological literature. The analysis of our data and the data published by other investigators allows suggestion that different hypotheses about the role of CER could have relation to different zones of the extreme periphery. The “morphological” hypothesis implying that CER cells could migrate from the peripheral to the central area and could serve as a source of material for the rest of the retina might be related to the area of the extreme periphery occupying more anterior position than CER and containing immature not differentiated cells. As for the “psychophysical” hypotheses on the participation of CER in the mechanisms of color constancy and locomotion control, these hypotheses might only be related to the more posterior part of the extreme periphery containing mature cells and similar in structure to the main part of the retina.

Key words: human eye, prenatal development, ora serrata, extreme retinal periphery, cone-enriched rim

DOI: 10.1134/S0235009218040091

Cite: Panova I. G., Poltavtseva R. A., Rozhkova G. I.. Morfologicheskaya kharakteristika razvitiya krainei periferii setchatki v oblasti ora serrata [Characteristics of morphological development of the extreme retinal periphery near ora serrata]. Sensornye sistemy [Sensory systems]. 2018. V. 32(4). P. 302-309 (in Russian). doi: 10.1134/S0235009218040091

References:

  • Salzmann M. Anatomiya i gistologiya chelovecheskogo glaza v normal’nom sostoyanii, ego razvitie i uvyadanie [Anatomy and gistology of human eye in normal condition, its development and aging]. Moscow, “Ya. Dankin i Ya. Khomutov”. 1913. 252 p. (in Russian)
  • Maximova E.M. Neiromediatory setchatki i perestroiki v nervnykh sloyakh setchatki pri degeneratsii fotoretseptorov [Neurotransmitter Interaction of Retinal neurons and Retinal Remodeling after Degeneration of Photoreceptors]. Sensornye sistemy [Sensory Systems]. 2008. V. 22(1). Р. 36–51 (in Russian)
  • Rozhkova G.I., Belokopytov A.V., Gracheva M.A. Zagadki slepoi zony i kol’tsa povyshennoi plotnosti kolbochek na krainei periferii setchatki [Mysteries of the blind zone and cone-enriched rim at the periphery of the human retina]. Sensornye sistemy [Sensory systems]. 2016. V. 30(4). P. 263–281 (in Russian)
  • Aiello A.L., Tran V. T., Rao N.A. Postnatal development of the ciliary body and pars plana. A morphometric study in childhood. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992. V. 110. P. 802–805.
  • Burnat K. Are Visual Peripheries Forever Young? Neural Plasticity. 2015. V. 2015, Article ID 307929, 13 p. DOI: 10.1155/2015/307929
  • Cornish E.E., Hendrickson A.E., Provis J.M. Distribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones in human fetal and postnatal retina: early development of spatial order and density profiles. Vision Research. 2004. V. 44. P. 2019–2026.
  • Curcio C.A., Sloan K.R., Kalina R.E., Hendrickson A.E. Human photoreceptor topography. J. Comp. Neurol. 1990. V. 292. P. 497–523.
  • Ersoy L., Ristau T., Lechanteur Y.T., Hahn M., Hoyng C.B., Kirchhof B., den Hollander A.I., Fauser S. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. BioMed Research International. 2014. Article ID 413150. 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/413150
  • Hendrickson A. Development of Retinal Layers in Prenatal Human Retina. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2016. V. 161. P. 29–35. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.09.023.
  • Hildebrand G.D., Fielder A.R. Anatomy and Physiology of the Retina. Pediatric Retina. Eds J. Reynolds, S. Olitsky. Springer-Verlag BerlinHeidelberg. 2011. V. VIII. P. 39–65.
  • Hollenberg M.J., Spira A.W. Human retinal development: ultrastructure of the outer retina. Am. J. Anat. 1973. V. 137. No. 4. P. 357–385.
  • Kozulin P., Provis J.M. Differential gene expression in the developing human macula: microarray analysis using raretissue samples. J. Ocul. Biol. Dis. Inform. 2009. V. 2. P. 176–189.
  • Kozulin P., Natoli R., O’Brien K.M.B., Madigan M.C., Provis J.M. Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula. Molecular Vision. 2009. V. 15. P. 45–59.
  • Mann I. The development of the human eye. London. Brit. Med. Assoc. 1949. 313 p.
  • Mollon J.D., Regan B.C., Bowmaker J.K. What is the function of the cone-rich rim of the retina. Eye. 1998. V. 12 (Pt 3b). P. 548–552.
  • O’Brien K.M.B., Schulte D., Hendrickson A.E. Expression of photoreceptor-associated molecules during human fetal eye development. Molecular Vision. 2003. V. 9. P. 401–409.
  • Peces-Pena M.D., de la Cuadra-Blanco C., Vicente A., Mérida-Velasco J.R. Development of the Ciliary Body: Morphological Changes in the Distal Portion of the Optic Cup in the Human. Cells Tissues Organs. 2013. V. 198. P. 149–159.
  • Pei Y.F., Smelser G.K. Some fine structural features of the ora serrata region in primate eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology. 1968. V. 7. No. 6. P. 672–688.
  • Polyak S.L. The retina. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1941. 720 p.
  • Provis J.M., Hendrickson A.E. The foveal avascular region of developing human retina. Arch. Ophthalmol. 2008. V. 126. No. 4. P. 507–511.
  • Provis J.M., Penfold P.L., Cornish E.E., Sandercoe T.S., Madigan M.C. Anatomy and development of the macula: specialisation and the vulnerability to macular degeneration. Clin. Exp. Optom. 2005. V. 88. No. 5. P. 269–281.
  • Provis J.M., Dubis A.M., Maddess T., Carroll J. Adaptation of the central retina for high acuity vision: Cones, the fovea and the avascular zone. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2013. V. 35. P. 63–81.
  • Wolff E. Anatomy of the eye and orbit. ed. 4. H.K. LEWIS & Co. Ltd. London. 1954. 440 p.